Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas to turn blood sugar into energy. It also turns the glucose in your body into glycogen and stores it in the muscles, liver, and cells for your body to use later when it needs it. When you take a meal, your blood sugar levels rise, hence activating insulin production from the pancreas’ beta cells.
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder depicted by high blood sugar levels for an extended period. If you do not manage it early enough, it may lead to several acute or even long-term complications. These complications include; diabetic ketoacidosis, chronic kidney disease, cardiovascular disease, foot ulcers, stroke, and severe nerve damage.
Inadequate insulin production by your pancreas
When your insulin-producing cells are lost, the amount of insulin produced drops leading to diabetes Type 1. Diabetes type 1 is idiopathic or immune-mediated. Diabetes type 1 is mainly of immune-mediated nature whereby the T cells of your body attack the beta cells, leading to decreased insulin production.
In the early stages, responsiveness to your insulin is usually normal. The onset of this type of diabetes is normally in children hence the name “juvenile diabetes.” However, when it occurs in adults, your health and weight are not impaired.
Dramatic swings in blood sugar levels that oftentimes occur for no evident reason can cause idiopathic type 1 diabetes, also known as unstable diabetes.
Partly, type 1 diabetes is genetic. If you are a genetically susceptible person, factors such as diet and viral infections can instigate this type of diabetes.
The unresponsiveness of your body tissues to insulin in combination with its reduced production causes type 2 diabetes. Your lifestyle and genetic factors play a major role in the development of this type of diabetes. These lifestyle factors include; substandard diet, obesity, being physically inactive, and psychological stress.
Insulin resistance and decreased production during pregnancy
A combination of insulin unresponsiveness and its decreased production causes gestational diabetes. This type of diabetes affects about 10% of pregnant women and may disappear after you have delivered. Its detection is mostly during the second or third trimester of your pregnancy. Without treatment, your health and that of the fetus are at high risk. Gestational diabetes is treatable through careful monitoring.
Destruction of your beta cells decreases insulin production, causing increased blood sugar and its inadequacy in the cells. Sometimes your insulin production is normal, but the body cells become unresponsive, leading to increased blood sugar levels.